Enclosing Divinity in a Pebble

The nervous system enables a human being to realize the vastness of existence. Rishis and seers used the term "Narayana" to denote Consciousness which powers the nervous system. The term Vishnu is synonymus with the term Narayana because the term Vishu refers to the ability of the divine principle to expand in an unbound fashion. Rishis believed that there are ways to tap into the compassionate nature of the unbound cosmic consciousness. A story conveys the long standing nature of one such way by alluding to geological time scales.


Shangava, a Rishi, meditated upon Vishnu for a long time in the Himalayas. Huge mountains and tall trees which go by the name "Saal" (Shorea Robusta) or "Shala" dominate the views in the Himalayas. A desire arose in the mind of the Rishi after realizing the unbound nature of Vishnu. He wanted to offer worship to a physical representation of Vishnu which would embody two salient aspects of the surroundings, namely the benevolent Saal trees and the heafty mountains. Nature began to fulfill the wishes of the great Rishi. It fossilized the Saal trees during plate tectomic upheavals and prepared a path for a powerful river to etch the mountains over the eons. 

River Gandaki separates two of the highest peaks of the Himalayas today while creating the deepest Gorge in the world. The river has smoothened the fossilized remains of Saal trees into shiny pebbles, some big and some small. Shaligram is the name for the revered black pebbles found in the river. Two notable features of the Shaligram  are the tiny circular etchings on the surface and the pits. The Omnipresent Vishnu is persent everywhere but in a special way in the Shaligram stone. Devotees offer leaves of the Tulasi (sacred basil) plant while worshipping Vishnu as Shaligram in their homes.

Bhodayana's New Moon

Rituals and astronomical configuration sare closely related per Indian tradition. Different conventions have been followed over the millinea to determine celebratory days and times. For example, Pitru Tarpanam or the offering of waters as a mark of respect to ancestors is done on Amavasya or a new Moon day. Pitru Tarpana is done only after noon; it is important that New Moon phase be present at the time of its performance. Bhodayana, a Rishi whose book of conventions continues to be popular to this day specifies the calculation of the new moon period in a certain way. Another Rishi, Apastambha, whose book of conventions is also widely followed, does not agree completely with the criteria in Bodhayana's book.

Vedic traditon provided freedom for multiple conventions to exist to accommodate change of customs across era or geographical zones. The basis for all convention are clearly stated and contemporary experts could critique the logic behind any proposed conventions. A new convention gained acceptance only when enough experts accepted the associated logic. There is an astronomical basis for Bhodayana's convention for the start of the Amavasya phase of the moon. It is difficult for non-experts to appreciate astronomical nuances. Tradition often attempted to convey the importance of a new convention through stories to those people. The following story is related to Bhodayana's Amavasya convention.

The previous Yuga or Era was about to end in a few years.Dialogues to prevent a great had failed. Duryodana, the leader of one of the opposite camps wanted to consult astrologers to fix the begining time of the war. One of the greatest astrologers of the time was Sahadeva, one of the five Pandava brothers who were the leaders on the other camp Duryodana sought Sahadeva's help and Sahadeva agreed to Duryodana's request to uphold the code of conducts for astrologers. Sri Krishna, the advisor to the Pandavas tried to convenice Sahadeva from grantng Duryodana the benefit of a favorable start time. Duryoda declared that the war would begin on the following Amavasya day and left Sri Krishna with the only other course of action.

Sri Krishna began offering Tarpana waters before the onset of Amavasya. The confused Devas, the celestials approached the Sun and Moon and they all appeared in front of Sri Krishna to seek clarification. Sri Krishna completed the Tarpana water offerings before responding to the Devas. He asked them the definition of Amavasya to which they answered in unison that Amavasya occurs when the Sun and the Moon appear together in one spot. In a sense, the Sun and the Moon were present at the same place, in front of Sri Krishna. The Mahabharata war began that very day.

Panchangam Calendar makers calculate Bodhayana and Apasthamba Amavasyas based on slightly different technicalities for both. Sometimes those Amavasya days are different and sometimes they happen to be on the same day. 

Venturi principle in Ancient Tamil Nadu


Great Tamil Kings promoteed the constructions of a network of wells, ponds, lakes and rivers. The famous king Mathurantaka Cholan constructued  largest artificial lake. But very few folk know of the auotmatic desluicing system which was installed in most of the lakes in olden times.

A large stone box was placed at the bottom of lakes and irrigation canals lead the lake water through the stone box. The stone box was created with two kind of holes. The one at the top of the stone box had the larger hole and was covered by a stone sphere. Two or three smaller holes were made at the bottom surface of the stone box to lead sluice at the bottom of the lake into the stone box.

The stone ball covering the top surface was removed periodically to allow lake water to gush into the stone box. The gushing water lowered the pressure within the stone, The lower pressure pushes the sluice at a higher pressure at the bottom of the lake, up the smaller holes at the bottom of the stone box. Craftmen who created the stone box aimed to achieve a 4:1 ratio of fresh water to muddy water through the stone box. Metal/bamboo/stone pipes carried this rich mix of soil and water from the stone box to the fields from the lake.

Most of the older lakes have disappeared today. Shrubs surround strange looking stone contraptions which were once cherished for their practical use.





குமிழித் தூம்பு மதகு - the tamil name for the mechanism to described above

Akshaya Tritiya

Ancient seers visualied the celestial circle, the ecliptic, as being made up of 27 equal arcs. They devised ways to astronomically track the movements of the Sun, the Moon and the planets among these arcs. The area associated with each arc extends deep into space. Vedic seers cognized the dominance of certain cosmic principles in each of these 27 segments of space. The cognized principles surprisingly map onto key ideas in modern astronomy such as the black hole, the steps in the formation of a solar system. Different cosmic vibrations reflect onto the microcosm, the human body, based on the arc segment which the Sun and the planets occupy.

The arc positions of the Sun and the Moon on the "Akshaya Tritiya" day are unique. The Sun is in the arc associated with Agni, the primordial energy principle. The Moon has moved two phases ahead of its union with the Sun and it occupies the arc associated with Soma, the universal rejuvination principle. The solar and the lunar energies in the human body are simultaneouly at their peak. Yogic texts associate the solar principle with the breath moving through the right nostril and the lunar principle with the breath moving through the left nostril. There is a perfect balance between the two on "Akshaya Tritiya" day. The mind reaches a state of poise and alertness because of this combination. It can recognize a new solution, a new opportunity or a treasure which can have a long lasting value. During the past decade, Gold jwellers in India have commercialized the Akshaya Tritiya as the perfect day to buy gold as an investment which does not loose its shine! 

Yoga Vasishta - reading

1st JANUARY
ubhabhyäm eva paksabhyam yatha khe paksinah gatih
tathai 'va jninn karmabhyam jayate paramam padam (7)

SUTİKSNA, the sage, asked the sage Agastya:
O sage, kindly enlighten me on this problem of liberation
which one of the two is conducive to liberation, work or knowledge?

AGASTYA replied:
Verily, birds are able to fly with their two wings: even so both work and know ledge together lead to the supreme goal of liberation. Not indeed work alone nor indeed knowledge alone can lead to liberation: but, both of them together form the means to liberation. Listen: I shall narrate to you a legend in answer to your question.

There once lived a holy man by name Karunya who was the son of Agni-vesya. Having mastered the holy scriptures and understood their purport, the young man became apathetic to life. Seeing this, Agnivesya demanded why Karunya had abandoned the due performance of his daily duties. To which Karunya replied: "Do not the scriptures declare on the one hand that one should fulfil scriptural injunctions till the end of one's life, and on the other that immortality can be realised only by the abandonment of all action? Caught between these two doctrines, what shall I do, O my guru and father?" Having said this, the young man remained silent

AGNIVESYA said:
My son, listen: I shall narrate to you an ancient legend. Duly consider its moral and then do as you please. Once upon a time, a celestial nymph named Surucǐ was seated on a peak in the Himalaya, when she saw a messenger of Indra the king of gods fly past. Questioned by her, he informed her of his mission which was as follows:

"A royal sage by name Aristanemi entrusted his kingdom to his son and was engaged in breath-taking austerities in Gandhamadana hill. Seeing this, Indra asked me to approach him with a bevy of nymphs and escort the royal sage to heaven. The royal sage however wanted to know the merits and the demerits of heaven. I replied In heaven, the best, the middling and the least among pious mortals receive appro- priate rewards, and once the fruits of their respective merits have been exhausted they return to the world of mortals. The royal sage refused to accept Indra's invi tation to heaven. Indra once again sent me to the royal sage with the request that he should seek the counsel of the sage Välmiki before turning the offer down."

The royal sage was then introduced to the sage Valmiki. He asked Välmiki,
"What is the best way to rid oneself of birth and death?" In reply, Välmıki narrated
to him the dialogue between Rama and Vasistha

2nd JANUARY

VALMİKI said:
He Is qualified to study this scripture (the dialogue between Rama and Vasishta)
who feels 'I am bound, I should be liberated', who is neither totally ignorant
enlightened. He who deliberates on the means of liberation propounded in this
scripture in the form of stories surely attains liberation from th- repetitive history
nor (of birth and death)


I had composed the story of Rama earlier and I had imparted it to my beloved
disciple Bharadväja. Once when he went to the Mount Meru, Bharadväja narrated
it to Brahmã, the creator. Highly pleased with this, the latter granted a boon to
Bharadvaja.

Bharadväja sought a boon that 'all human beings may be freed from
unhappiness' and begged of Brahma to find the best way to achieve this.
Brahma said to Bharadväja: "Go to the sage Valmiki and pray to him to continue
to narrate the noble story of Rama in such a way that the listener may be freed from
the darkness of nescience." Not content with that, Brahmã accompanied by the
sage Bharadvaja arrived at my hermitage

After receiving due worship at my hands Brahma said to me: "O sage, your
story of Räama should be the raft with which men will cross the ocean of samsära
(repetitive history). Hence, continue its narration and bring it to a successful
completion. Having said this, the Creator instantly disappeared from the scene.
As if puzzled by the abrupt command of Brahmã, I requested the sage Bharad-
vāja to explain to me what Brahma had just said. Bharadvāja repeated Brahma's
words: "Brahma would like you to reveal the story of Rama in such a manner that
it would enable all to go beyond sorrow. 1, too, pray to you, O sage: kindly tell me
in detail, how Rama, Laksmana and the other brothers freed themselves from
sorrow.

I then revealed to Bharadväja the secret of the liberation of Rama, Laksmana
and the other brothers, as also their parents and members of the royal court
And, I said to Bharadväja: "My son, if you, too, live like them you will also be freea
from sorrow here and now."

3rd JANUARY

VALMIKI continued
This world-appearance ls a confuslon, even as the blueness of the sky is an
epial luslon. 1 thlnk It ls better not to let the mind dwell on It, but to ignore it.
Neither fiwedom from sorrow not realisation of one's real nature is possible as long
as the conviction does not arise in one that the world-appearance is unreal. And
this conviction arises when one studies this scripture with diligence. It is then that
one arrives at the firm conviction that the objective world is a confusion of the real
with the unreal. If one does not thus study this scripture, true knowledge does not
arise in him even in millions of years.

Moksa or liberation is the total abandonment of all vasană or mental condition-
ing, without the least reserve. Mental conditioning is of two types the pure and
the impure. The impure is the cause of birth; the pure liberates one from birth. The
impure is of the nature of nescience and ego-sense; these are the seeds, as it were,
for the tree of re-birth. On the other hand, when these seeds are abandoned, the
meatal conditioning that merely sustains the body, is of a pure nature. Such mental
conditioning exists even in those who have been liberated while living: it does not
lead to re-birth as it is sustained only by past momentum and not by present moti
vation.

I shall now narrate to you how Rama lived an enlightened life of a liberated
sage: knowing this you will be freed from. all misunderstanding concerning old age
and death.

Upon his return from the hermitage of his preceptor, Rama dwelt in his father's
palace sporting in various ways. Desirous of touring the whole country and visiting
the holy places of pilgrimage, Rama sought the presence of his father and asked
to be permitted to undertake such a pilgrimage. The king chose an auspicious day
for the commencement of this pilgrimage; and on that day, after receiving the
affectionate blessings of the elders of the family, Rama departed.

Rama toured the whole country from the Himalaya downwards, along with his
brothers. He then returned to the capital to the delight of the people of the country.

4th JANUARY
kopam vlşäda kalanäinis vitatah en hara
na 'lpena karanavadena vahanti santal
sargenn sarhhrtijavena vina Jugatyän
bhütäni bhüpa na mahänti vikiravantl (5/15)

VALMIKI continued
Upon entering the palace Räma devoutly bowed to his father, the sage Vasn
tha and other elders and holy men. The whole of the city of Ayodhya put on a festine
appearance for eight days, to celebrate the return of Räma from the piligrimage
For some time Rama lived in the palace duly performing his daily duties. Ho
ever, very soon a profound change came over him. He grew thin and emaciated
pale and weak. The king Dasaratha was worried over this sudden and unaccountable
change in his beloved son's appearance and behaviour. Whenever he questioned
Rama concerning his health, the latter replied that there was nothing wrong. When
Daśaratha asked Rama, "Beloved son, what is worrying you?" Rama politely replied.
"Nothing, father" and remained silent

Inevitably Dasaratha turned to the sage Vasistha for the answers. The sage
enigmatically answered: "Surely, there is some reason why Rama behaves in this
manner. Even as in this world no great changes take place before the coming into
being of their cause, viz., the cosmic elements; changes like anger, despondency
and joy do not manifest in the behavicur of noble ones without proper cause."
Dasaratha did not wish to probe further.

Soon after this, there arrived at the palace the sage Viśvamitra of world renown.
When the king was informed of the holy visit, he rushed forward to greet him.
DASARATHA said:
Welcome, welcome, O holy sage! Your arrival at my humble abode makes me
happy. It is as welcome to me as vision to a blind man, rain to parched earth, son
to a barren woman, resurrection of a dead man, recovery of lost wealth. O sage.
what may I do for you? Pray, whatever be the wish with which you have come to me.
consider that wish already fulfilled. You are my worshipful deity. I shall do thy
bidding.

5th JANUAKY
kale kale prthng brahman bhürl virya vlbhütayay
bhütesv nbhyudayam yänti praliyante cn kalatah (h/29)

VALMIKI continued
Visvamitra was delighted to hear Daśaratha's words and proceeded to reveal
his mission. He said to the king:
O king, I need your assistance in the fulfilment of a religious rite undertaken
by me. Whenever I undertake a religious rite, the demons who are the followers of
Khara and Dūşana invade the holy place and desecrate it. Under the vows of the
religious rite, I am unable to curse them.

You can help me. Your son Rama can easily deal with these demons. And. in
return for this help, I shall confer manifold blessings upon him which will bring you
unexcelled glory. Do not let your attachment to your son overpower your devotion
to duty. In this world the noble ones do not consider any gift beyond their means.
The moment you say yes, that very moment I consider that the demons are
dead. For, I know who Rãma is; even so does the sage Vasistha and the other holy
ones in this court. Let there be no procrastination, O king: send Rāma with me
without delay

Hearing this highly unwelcome request, the king remained stunned and silent
for a while and then replied: "O sage, Rāma is not even sixteen years old and is,
therefore, not qualified to wage a war. He has not even seen a combat, except what
goes on in the inner apartment of the palace. Command me to accompany you
command my vast army to accompany you to exterminate the demons. But I can
not part with Rama. Is it not natural for all living beings to love their young: do not
even wise men engage themselves in extraordinary activities for the love of their
children; and do not people abandon their happiness, their consorts and wealth
rather than their children? No, I cannot part with Räma.

I have heard of the might demon Rävana. Is he the one that causes disturbance
to your religious rite? In that case, nothing can be done to help you, for I know that
even the gods are powerless against him. Time and again, such powerful beings
are born on this earth; and in time they leave the stage of this world."
Viśvamitra was angry. Seeing this, the sage Vasistha intervened and persuaded
the king not to back out on his promise, but to send Räma with Viśvamitra. O king
it is unworthy of you to go back on your promise. A king should be an exemplar of
righteous conduct. Rama is safe in the care of Viśvamitra, who is extremely power-
ful and w ho has numerous invincible missiles."


19th JANUARY
RAMA continued
So refleting on the pitiable fate of living beings thus fallen into the dreadful
pit of somow. T am filled with grief. My mind is confused, I shudder, and at every
step I am afraid. I have given up everything but I hnve not established myself In
sNdom; hence I sm partly eaught and partly freed. 1 am like a tree that has been
cut but not severed from its root. I wish to restrain my mind but do not have the
wisdom to do so,

Hence, pray tell me: what is that condition or state in which one does not
experience any grief? How can one who is involved in the world and its activities
as I am. reach the supreme state of peace and bliss? What is that attitude that
enables one not to be influenced by various kinds of activities and experiences?
Pray tell me: how do you people who are enlightened live in this world? How can
the mind be freed from lust and made to view the world both as one's own self and
also as no more valuable than a blade of grass? The biography of which great one
shall we study in order to learn the path of wisdom? How should one live in this
world? Holy sir, instruct me in that wisdom which will enable my otherwise rest-
less mind to be steady like a mountain. You are an enlightened being: instruct me
so that I may never again be sunk in grief

Obviously this world is full of pain and death; how does it become a source of
joy. without befuddling one's heart? The mind is obviously full of impurities; how
can it be cleansed and with what cleanser prescribed by what great sage? How
should one live here so as not to fall a victim to the twin currents of love-and-hate?
Obviously there is a secret that enables one to remain unaffected by the grief and
suffering in this world even as mercury is not affected when it is thrown into the
fire. What is that secret? What is the secret that counteracts the habit of the mind
that is spread out in the form of this universe?

Who are those heroes who have freed themselves from delusion? And what
methods did they adopt to free themselves. If you consider that I am neither fit nor
capable of understanding this, I shall fast unto death.

VALMIKI said
Having said so, Räma remained silent



21st JANUAR

VISVAMITRA said
O Rama, you are indeed the foremost among the wise, and there is really nothing
further for you to know. However, your knowledge needs confirmation, even as th
self-knowledge of Suka needed confirmation from Janaka before Suka could fined
the peace that passeth understanding

Just like you, Suka also arrived at the truth concerning existence after deep
contemplation of the evanescence of this world. Yet because it was self-acquired
knowledge, he could not positively affirm to himself 'This is the truth'. He had of
ourse arrived at the state of extreme and supreme dispassion

One day. this Suka approuched his father Vedavyäsa and asked him: "Sir, how
did this diversity of world-creation come into being: and how will it come to an end?"
Vedavyass gave a detailed answer to this question: but Suka thought All this I knew
already: what is new in this" and was not impressed. Vedavyasa also sensed this
and hence he said to Suka: "My son, I do not know anything more than this; but there
is the royal sage Janaka on earth who knows more than this. Kindly approach him

Suka thereupon came to Janaka's palace. Informed by the palace guards of the
young Suka's arrival, Janaka ignored him for a week while Suka patiently waited
outside. The next week Janaka had Suka brought into the palace and waited upon
by dancers and musicians. Suka was unmoved by this, too. After this, Suka was
ushered into the royal presence, and Janaka said: "You know the truth; what else
shall I tell you now. This diversity arises on account of mental modifications and it
will cease when they cease." Thus when his self-knowledge had been confirmed
Suka attained peace and remained in nirvikalpa samadhi

Like Suka, Rama too has gained the highest wisdom. The surest sign of a man
of the highest wisdom is that he is unattracted by the pleasures of the world, for in
him even the subtle tendencies have ceased. When these tendencies are strong
there is bondage; when they have ceased, there is liberation. He is truly a liberated
e who by nature is not swayed by sense pleasure, without the motivation of fame
or other incentives. And I pray that the sage Vasistha should so instruct Rama that
he will be confirmed in his wisdom and we, too, may be inspired

VASISTHA said
I shall surely accede to your request. And, O Rāma, I shall now impart to you
the wisdom which was revealed to me by the divine creator Brahmā, himself. O
Rama, countless have been the universes that have come into being and that have
been dissolved. In fact, even the countless universes that exist at this moment are
impossible to conceive of. All this can immediately be realised in one's own heart
for these universes are the creations of the desires that arise in the heart, like
castles built in the air. Neither the world of matter nor the modes of creation are
truly real; yet the living and the dead think and feel they are real. Ignorance of this
truth keeps up the appearance
VASISTHA * continued:`
II:7, 8
O Rama*, one should, with a body free from illness and mind free from distress, pursue selfknowledge
so that he is not born again here. Such selfeffort
has a
threefold root and therefore threefold fruit—an inner awakening in the intelligence, a decision in the mind and the physical action.
Selfeffort
is based on these three—knowledge of scriptures, instructions of the preceptor and one's own effort. Fate (or divine dispensation) does not enter here.
Hence, he who desires salvation should divert the impure mind to pure endeavor by persistent effort —this is the very essence of all scriptures. The Holy ones
emphasise: persistently tread the path that leads to the eternal good. And the wise seeker knows: the fruit of my endeavors will be commensurate with the intensity of
my selfeffort
and neither fate nor a god can ordain it otherwise. Indeed, such selfeffort
alone is responsible for whatever man gets here; when he is sunk in
unhappiness, to console him people suggest that it is his fate. This is obvious: one goes abroad, one appeases one's hunger, by undertaking a journey and by eating
food—not on account of a fate. No one has seen such a fate or a god, but everyone has experienced how an action (good or evil) leads to a result (good or evil).
Hence, right from one's childhood one should endeavor to promote one's true good (salvation) by a keen intelligent study of the scriptures, by having the company of
the holy ones and by right selfeffort.
Fate or divine dispensation is merely a convention which has come to be regarded as truth by being repeatedly declared to be true. If this god or fate is truly the
ordainer of everything in this world, of what meaning is any action (even like bathing, speaking or giving), and whom should one teach at all? No. In this world, except

a corpse, everything is active and such activity yields its appropriate result. No one has ever realised the existence of a fate or divine dispensation.

The eternal is not attained by rites and rituals, by pilgrimages nor by wealth; it is to be attained only by the conquest of one's mind, by the cultivation of wisdom. Hence
everyone—gods, demons, demigods or men should constantly seek (whether one is walking, falling or sitting) the conquest of the mind and selfcontrol
which are the
fruits of wisdom.
When the mind is at peace, pure, tranquil, free from delusion or hallucination, untangled and free from cravings, it does not long for anything nor does it reject anything.
This is selfcontrol
or conquest of mind—one of the four gatekeepers
to liberation which I mentioned earlier.
All that is good and auspicious flows from selfcontrol.
All evil is dispelled by selfcontrol.
No gain, no pleasure in this world or in heaven is comparable to the delight
of selfcontrol.
The delight one experiences in the presence of the selfcontrolled
is incomparable. Everyone spontaneously trusts him. None (not even demons and
goblins) hates him.
Selfcontrol,
O Rama *, is the best remedy for all physical and mental ills. When there is selfcontrol,
even the food you eat tastes better, else it tastes bitter. He who
wears the armour of selfcontrol
is not harmed by sorrow.
He who even while hearing, touching, seeing, smelling and tasting what is regarded as pleasant and unpleasant, is neither elated nor depressed—he is selfcontrolled.
He who looks upon all beings with equal vision, having brought under control the sensations of pleasure and pain, is selfcontrolled.
He who, though living amongst all
is unaffected by them, neither feels elated nor hates, even as one is during sleep—he is selfcontrolled.
II:14
VASISTHA* continued:
Enquiry (the second gatekeeper
to liberation) should be undertaken by an intelligence that has been purified by a close study of the scripture, and this enquiry should
be unbroken. By such enquiry the intelligence becomes keen and is able to realise the supreme; hence enquiry alone is the best remedy for the longlasting
illness
known as samsara*.
The wise man regards strength, intellect, efficiency and timely action as the fruits of enquiry. Indeed kingdom, prosperity, enjoyment, as well as final liberation, are all
the fruits of enquiry. The spirit of enquiry protects one from the calamities that befall the unthinking fool. When the mind has been rendered dull by the
absence of enquiry, even the cool rays of the moon turn into deadly weapons, and the childish imagination throws up a goblin in every dark spot. Hence, the nonenquiring
fool is really a storehouse of sorrow. It is the absence of enquiry that gives rise to actions that are harmful to oneself and to others, and to numerous
psychosomatic illnesses. Therefore, one should avoid the company of such unthinking people.
They in whom the spirit of enquiry is ever awake illumine the world, enlighten all who come into contact with them, dispel the ghosts created by an ignorant mind, and
realise the falsity of sensepleasures
and their objects. O Rama *, in the light of enquiry there is realisation of the eternal and unchanging reality; this is the supreme.
With it one does not long for any other gain nor does one spurnanything.
He is free from delusion, attachment; he is not inactive nor does he get drowned in action; he
lives and functions in this world and at the end of a natural lifespan
he reaches the blissful state of total freedom.
The eye of spiritual enquiry does not lose its sight even in the midst of all activities; he who does not have this eye is indeed to be pitied. It is better to be born as a frog
in the mud, a worm in dung, a snake in a hole, but not to be without this eye. What is enquiry? To enquire thus: "Who am I? How has this evil of samsara* (repetitive
history) come into being?" is true enquiry. Knowledge of truth arises from such enquiry; from such knowledge there follows tranquility in oneself; and then there arises
the supreme peace that passeth understanding and the ending of all sorrow.
(Vicara* or enquiry is not reasoning nor analysis: it is directly looking into oneself.)
VASISTHA* continued:
Contentment is another gatekeeper
to liberation. He who has quaffed the nectar of contentment does not relish craving for sensepleasures;
no delight in this world is
as sweet as contentment which destroys all sins.
What is contentment? To renounce all craving for what is not obtained unsought and to be satisfied with what comes unsought, without being elated or depressed even
by them—this is contentment. As long as one is not satisfied in the self, he will be subjected to sorrow. With the rise of contentment the purity of one's heart blooms.
The contented man who possesses nothing owns the world.
Satsanga* (company of the wise, holy and enlightened persons) is yet another gatekeeper
to liberation. Satsanga* enlarges one's intelligence, destroys one's
ignorance and one's psychological distress. Whatever be the cost, however difficult it may be, whatever obstacles
may stand in its way, satsanga * should never be neglected. For, satsanga* alone is one's light on the path of life. Satsanga* is indeed superior to all other forms of
religious practice like charity, austerity, pilgrimage and the performance of religious rites.
One should by every means in one's power adore and serve the holy men who have realised the truth and in whose heart the darkness of ignorance has been dispelled.
They who, on the other hand, treat such holy men disrespectfully, surely invite great suffering.
These four—contentment, satsanga* (company of wise men), the spirit of enquiry, and selfcontrol—
are the four surest means by which they who are drowning in this
ocean of samsara* (repetitive history) can be saved. Contentment is the supreme gain. Satsanga* is the best companion to the destination. The spirit of enquiry itself is
the greatest wisdom. And, selfcontrol
is supreme happiness. If you are unable to resort to all these four, then practise one: by the diligent practice of one of these, the
others will also be found in you. The highest wisdom will seek you of its own accord. Until you tame the wild elephant of your mind with the help of these noble
qualities, you cannot have progress towards the supreme, even if you become a god, demigod
or a tree. Therefore, O Rama*, strive by all means to cultivate these
noble qualities.
II:17
VASISTHA* said:
He who is endowed with the qualities that I have enumerated thus far is qualified to listen to what I am about to reveal. You are indeed such a qualified person, O
Rama*. Only he would wish to hear this who is ripe for liberation. But this revelation is capable of leading one to liberation even if one does not desire it, as a light is
capable of illumining the eyes of even the sleeping person. As when the truth that a rope is a rope is seen and the fear generated by the misunderstanding that it is a
snake disappears, the study of this scripture frees one from sorrow, born of samsara*.

He who listens to and reflects upon the exposition of this scripture enjoys unfathomable wisdom, firm conviction and unperturbable coolness of spirit. Soon he
becomes a liberated sage whose glory is indescribable.

O Rama *, when a truth that has not been personally experienced is expounded, one does not grasp it except with the help of an illustration. Such illustrations have
been used in this scripture with a definite purpose and a limited intention. They are not to be taken literally, nor is their significance to be stretched beyond the intention.
When the scripture is thus studied, the world appears to be a dreamvision.
These indeed are the purpose and the purport of the illustrations. Let no one of perverted
intellect misinterpret the illustrations given in this scripture.

Parables have only one purpose: to enable the listener to arrive at the truth. The realisation of truth is so vital that any reasonable method used is justified, though the
parables themselves may be fictitious. The parables themselves are only partly applicable to the truth thus illustrated, and only that part is to be grasped and the rest
ignored. Study and understanding of the scriptures with the help of illustrations and of a qualified teacher are necessary only till one realises the truth.

O Rama *, till such time as this wisdom arises directly in you, take recourse to the knowledge transmitted by the great teachers. When you receive such knowledge
from the great teachers, your behaviour will mirror theirs; and when thus you grow in their virtuous qualities, your wisdom will unfold within you. Wisdom and
emulation of the noble behaviour of holy ones thrive on each other!

Vedic Year & Astronomer Varahamihira


Vedic new year begins in March-April. There are two conventions for determining the start of the Vedic year. The first one is based on the lunar calendar. The new year begins, according to it, when the sun and the moon rise together close to Ashvini nakshatra, or the 13 degree 20' arc of the sclipse at the zero point of sidereal Aries. The second one is based on the solar calendar. The new year begins, according to it, when Sun enters Ashvani nakshatra. These two new year days are generally separated by a few days.

Vedic year begins, per a long standing convention, at or after the spring equinox. The spring equinox has shifted several days from where it was during the time of the great kings of the Vedic civilization. At present, the Sun enters the constellation of Aries (sidereal), 24 days after the spring equinox. Ancient astronomers in India knew about the precession of earth's axis and the resulting shift in the start of seasons. A tradition of adjusting the calendars every few centuries was in vogue for a long time. Transitioning from one convention to a new one is always a challenge.

Spring equinox coincided with the entry of the Sun into the constellation of Aries in 490 CE. The kings of the Gupta dynasty then ruled over the city of Avanti or Ujjain, the astronomy capital of the Indian subcontinent. Great astronomers like Aryabhata and Varahamihira presided over the astronomical observatory in Ujjain. They, especially, Varahamihira challenged the dogmatists who favored less scientific ideas about time cycles. Several astronomers had grown lax with rule of thumb calculations. They had forgotten that seed values or Bijas in formulae for plenetary orbits had to be updated based on new sky observations.

A major revision to a 60 year cycle based on Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions is attributed to astronomer Varahamihira. Varahamihira shifted the starting point of the table by 26 entries! Varahamihira was also likely instrumental in shifting the start of the Vedic year to Mesha-Sankranti or the first point of Aries. Aryabhata, the younger contemporary of Varahamihira notes in his work that the Mesha-sankranti was set in 490 CE.

Modern astronomers attenpted to standardize the difference between nir-ayana (sidereal) and sa-ayana (tropical) zero points of Aries, as soon as India gained her independence from the British. A lot of knowledge base was lost during the long gap of fifteen centuries. One camp of astronomers doubted that the last change had happened in 490 CE. They suggested 285 CE instead. Their logic was that the star Spica must have been one of the most important of the bright stars which ancient astronomers used for observation based corrections. The first point of nir-ayana (sidereal) Aries, per tradition, falls 180 degrees across from the Yoga-tara (observational pivotal star) of the eclipical arc named "Chitra". Lahiri, the leader of this camp, was influential because of his close friendship with Pandit Nehru, the then PM of India. Modern Vedic astronomy tables are now based on Lahiri's proposal. But, could a new convention for the start of spring come into acceptance in 295 BCE without a strong minded astronomer like Varahamihira? Table showing close encounters between significant planets in Vedic astronomy (Using CALSKY software)





patanjali-fans


Set of Sutras for Third chapter - On Vibhuti or special powers which can be gained through Samyama
We will review all sutras and may be able to review Gurudev's video at marked Sutras which Gurudev mentioned as important

Sutra III.1
देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा॥१॥ 
deśa-bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā ॥1॥
[HA]: Dharana Is The Mind’s (Chitta’s) Fixation On A Particular Point In Space

Sutra III.2
तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्॥२॥ 
 tatra pratyaya-ikatānatā dhyānam ॥2॥
[HA]: In That (Dharana) The Continuous Flow Of Similar Mental Modification Is Called Dhyana Or Meditation.


Sutra III.3
तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः॥३॥ 
 tadeva-artha-mātra-nirbhāsaṁ svarūpa-śūnyam-iva-samādhiḥ ॥3॥
[HA]: When The Object Of Meditation Only Shines Forth In The Mind, As Though Devoid Of The Thought Of Even The Self (Who Is Meditation) That State Is Called Samadhi Or Concentration.

Sutra III.4
त्रयमेकत्र संयमः॥४॥ 
 trayam-ekatra saṁyamaḥ ॥4॥
[HA]: The Three Together On The Same Object Is Called Samyama.

Sutra III.5
तज्जयात्प्रज्ञालोकः॥५॥ 
 tajjayāt prajñālokaḥ ॥5॥
[SS]: By mastery of samyama comes the light of knowledge.

Sutra III.6
तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः॥६॥ 
tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ॥6॥
[HA]: It (Samyama) Is To Be Applied To The Stages (Of Practice)

Sutra III.7
त्रयमन्तरङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः॥७॥ 
 trayam-antarangaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ॥7॥
[HA]: These Three Are More Intimate Practices Than The Previously Mentioned Ones. 

Sutra III.8
तदपि बहिरङ्गं निर्बीजस्य॥८॥ 
 tadapi bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya ॥8॥
[HA]: That Also Is (To Be Regarded As) External In Respect Of Nirvija Or Seedless Concentration.

Sutra III.9
व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥ 
 vyutthāna-nirodha-saṁskārayoḥ abhibhava-prādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇa cittānvayo nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ ॥9॥
[SS]: The impressions which normally arise are made to disappear by the appearance of suppressive efforts, which in turn create mental modifications. The moment of conjunction of mind and new modification is nirodha parinama.

Sutra III.10
तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥ 
 tasya praśānta-vāhitā saṁskārat ॥10॥
[SP]: When this suppression of thought-waves becomes continuous, the mind’s flow is calm. 

Sutra III.11
सर्वार्थतैकाग्रतयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः॥११॥ 
 sarvārthatā ekāgrātayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhi-pariṇāmaḥ ॥11॥
[HA]: Diminution Of Attention To All And Sundry And Development Of One Pointedness Is Called Samadhi-Parinama Or Mutation Of The Concentrative Mind.
[SS]: When there is decline in distractness and appearance of one-pointedness, then comes samadhi parinama (development in Samadhi)

Sutra III.12
ततः पुनः शान्तोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः॥१२॥ 
 tataḥ punaḥ śātoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasya-ikāgratā-pariṇāmaḥ ॥12॥
[SP]: The mind becomes one-pointed when similar thoughtwaves arise in succession without any gaps between them.

Sutra III.13
एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः॥१३॥ 

 etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ॥13॥
[SV]: By this is explained the threefold transformations of form, time and state, in fine or gross matter, and in the organs.


Sutra III.14
शान्तोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी॥१४॥ 
 śān-odita-avyapadeśya-dharmānupātī dharmī ॥14॥
[HA]: That Which Continues Its Existence All Through The Varying Characteristics, Namely The Quiscent, i.e. Past, The Uprisen, i.e. Present Or Unmanifest (But Remaining As Potent Force) i.e. Future, Is The Substratum (Or Object Characterised).
[BM]: The substratum underlying the essential properties of material nature endures whether these properties are at rest, arising, or unmanifest. 

Sutra III.15
क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यत्वे हेतुः॥१५॥ 
 kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyateve hetuḥ ॥15॥
[SV]: The succession of changes is the cause of manifold evolution.

Sutra III.16
परिणामत्रयसंयमादतीतानागतज्ञानम्॥१६॥ 
 pariṇāmatraya-saṁyamāt-atītānāgata jñānam ॥16॥
[SS]: By practicing samyama on the three stages of evolution comes knowledge of past and future. 

Sutra III.17
शब्दार्थप्रत्ययानामितरेतराध्यासात् संकरस्तत्प्रविभागसंयमात् सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम्॥१७॥ 
 śabdārtha-pratyayāmām-itaretarādhyāsāt-saṁkaraḥ tat-pravibhāga-saṁyamāt sarvabhūta-ruta-jñānam ॥17॥
[HA]: Word, Object Implied And The Idea Thereof Overlapping, Produce One Unified Impression. If Samyama Is Practiced On Each Separately, Knowledge Of The Meaning Of The Sounds Produces By All Beings Can Be Acquired.
[SV]: By making Samyama on word, meaning, and knowledge, which are ordinarily confused, comes the knowledge of all animal sounds. 

Sutra III.18
संस्कारसाक्षत्करणात् पूर्वजातिज्ञानम्॥१८॥ 
 saṁskāra-sākṣātkaraṇāt pūrva-jāti-jñānam ॥18॥
[HA]: By The Realisation Of Latent Impression, Knowledge Of Previous Births Is Acquired.
[SS]: By direct perception, through samyama, of one’s mental impressions, knowledge of past births is obtained. 

Sutra III.19
प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम्॥१९॥ 
 pratyayasya para-citta-jñānam ॥19॥
[BM]: Through direct perception of cognitive process, one has knowledge of the thoughts of others. 

Sutra III.20
न च तत् सालम्बनं तस्याविषयीभूतत्वात्॥२०॥ 
 na ca tat sālambanaṁ tasya-aviṣayī bhūtatvāt ॥20॥
[HA]: The Prop (Or Basis) Of The Notion Does Not Get Known Because That Is Not The Object Of The (Yogin’s ) Observation.
[BM]: But this does not involve knowledge of the underlying object of thought since that is not the object of one’s perception.
Sutra III.21
कायरूपसंयमात् तद्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुःप्रकाशासंप्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम्॥२१॥ 
 kāya-rūpa-saṁyamāt tat-grāhyaśakti-stambhe cakṣuḥ prakāśāsaṁprayoge-‘ntardhānam ॥21॥
[HA]: When Perceptibility Of The Body Is Suppressed By Practicing Samyama On The Visual Character, Disappearance Of The Body Is Effected Through It’s Getting Beyond The Sphere Of Perception Of The Eye. 

Sutra III.22a
एतेन शब्दाद्यन्तर्धानमुक्तम् ॥२२॥ 
 etena shabdaadyantardhaanamuktam


[SS]: In the same way, the disappearance of sound [touch, taste, smell, etc] is explained.

Sutra III.22b
सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमादपरान्तज्ञानमरिष्टेभ्यो वा॥२२॥ 
 sopa-kramaṁ nirupa-kramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamāt-aparāntajñānam ariṣṭebhyo vā ॥22॥
[SS]: (III.23):
Karmas are of two kinds: quickly manifesting and slowly manifesting. By samyama on them, or on the portents of death, the knowledge of the time of death is obtained. 

Sutra III.23
मैत्र्यादिषु बलानि॥२३॥ 
 maitry-adiṣu balāni ॥23॥
[HA]: Through Samyama On Friendliness (Amity) And Other Similar Virtues, Strength Is Obtained Therein.
[IT]: (24):
(By performing Smayama) on friendliness etc (comes) strength (of that quality) 

Sutra III.24
बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनि॥२४॥ 

 baleṣu hastibalādīnī ॥24॥
[SV]: (25):
By making Samyama on the strength of the elephant, etc., that strength comes to the Yogi.


Sutra III.25
प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात् सूक्ष्मव्यवहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम्॥२५॥ 
 pravr̥tty-āloka-nyāsāt sūkṣmā-vyāvahita-viprakr̥ṣṭa-jñānam ॥25॥
[HA]: By Applying The Effulgeant Light Of Higher Sense-Perception (Jyotismati) Knowledge Of Subtle Objects, Or Things Obstructed From View, Or Placed At A Great Distance, Can Be Acquired.
[SS]: (26):
By samyama on the Light within, the knowledge of the subtle, hidden and remotes is obtained. [Note: subtle as atoms, hidden as treasure, remote as far distanct lands]

Sutra III.26
भुवनज्ञानं सूर्ये संयमात्॥२६॥ 
 bhuva-jñānaṁ sūrye-saṁyamāt ॥26॥
[VH]: By samyama on the sun- knowledge of the worlds.
Sutra III.27
चन्द्रे ताराव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२७॥ 
 candre tāravyūha-jñānam ॥27॥
[SV]: (28):
On the moon, (comes) the knowledge of the cluster of stars. 

Sutra III.28
ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम्॥२८॥ 
 dhruve tadgati-jñānam ॥28॥
[HA]: (By Practicing Samyama) On The Pole Star, Motion Of The Stars Is Known.
[IT]: (29):
[BM]: From perfect discipline of the polestar, one has knowledge of the movements of the stars.

Sutra III.29
नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२९॥ 

 nābhicakre kāyavyūha-jñānam ॥29॥
[SP]: (30) By making samyama on the navel, one gains knowledge of the constitution of the body

Sutra III.30
कण्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासानिवृत्तिः॥३०॥ 
 kanṭha-kūpe kṣutpipāsā nivr̥ttiḥ ॥30॥
[VH]: By samyama on the well of the throat – the ceasing of hunger and thirst.

Sutra III.31
कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम्॥३१॥ 
 kūrma-nāḍyāṁ sthairyam ॥31॥
(By performing Samyama) on the Kurma-nadi steadiness.

Sutra III.32
मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम्॥३२॥ 
 mūrdha-jyotiṣi siddha-darśanam ॥32॥
[HA]: (By Practicing Samyama) On The Coronal Light, Siddhas Can Be Seen. 

Sutra III.33
प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम्॥३३॥ 

prātibhād-vā sarvam ॥33॥
[HA]: From Knowledge Kown As Pratibha (Intuition) Everything Becomes Known.
Sutra III.34
हृदये चित्तसंवित्॥३४॥ 
 hrḍaye citta-saṁvit ॥34॥
(By Practicing Samyama) On The Heart, one gains infalliable knowledge (knowledge of consciousness) 

Sutra III.35
सत्त्वपुरुषयोरत्यन्तासंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषो भोगः परार्थत्वात् स्वार्थसंयमात् पुरुषज्ञानम् 

sattva-puruṣāyoḥ atyantā-saṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo-bhogaḥ para-arthat-vāt-sva-arthasaṁyamāt puruṣa-jñānam ॥35॥
[SS]: (36):
The intellect and the Parusha (or Atman) are totally different, the intellect existing for the sake of Parusha, while the Parusha exists for its own sake. Not distinguishing this is the cause of all experience; and by samyama on the distinction, knowledge of the Parusha is gained. 

Sutra III.36
ततः प्रातिभश्रावणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते॥३६॥ 
 tataḥ prātibha-srāvāṇa-vedana-ādarśa-āsvāda-vārtā jāyante ॥36॥
[IT]: (37):
Thence are produced hearing, touch, taste, and smell from the inside.

Sutra III.37
ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः॥३७॥ 
 te samādhav-upasargā[ḥ]-vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ॥37॥
These [superphysical sense] are obstacles to [nirbija] Samadhi but are siddhis (powers or accomplishments) in the worldly pursuits.
[SP]: (38) They are powers in the wordly state, but they are obstacles to samadhi.

Sutra III.38
बन्धकारणशैथिल्यात्प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः॥३८॥ 
 badnha-kāraṇa-śaithilyāt pracāra-saṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ॥38॥
[IT]: (39):
The mind can enter another’s body on relaxation of the cause of bondage and from knowledge of passages. 

Sutra III.39
उदानजयाज्जलपङ्ककण्टकादिष्वसङ्ग उत्क्रान्तिश्च॥३९॥ 
 udāna-jayāat jala-paṇkha-kaṇṭakādiṣv-asaṅgo-‘tkrāntiśca ॥39॥
[HA]: By Conquering The Vital Force Called Udana The Chance Of Immersion In Water Or Mud, Or Entanglement In The Thorns, Is Avoided And Exit From The Body At Will Is Assured. 

Sutra III.40
समानजयाज्ज्वलनम्॥४०॥ 
 samāna-jayāj-jvalanam ॥40॥
[HA]: By Conquering The Vital Force Called Samana, Effulgence Is Acquired

Sutra III.41
श्रोत्राकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमाद्दिव्यं श्रोत्रम्॥४१॥ 
śrotra-ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt divyaṁ śrotram ॥41॥
[HA]: (By Practicing Samyama) On The Relationship Between Akasa And The Power Of Hearing, Divine Sense Of Hearing Is Gained. 

Sutra III.42
कायाकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमाल्लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाकाशगमनम्॥४२॥ 
kāyākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt laghu-tūla-samāpatteśca-ākāśa gamanam ॥42॥
[SS]: By samyama on the relationship between the body and ether, lightness of cotton fiber is attained, and thus traveling through the ether is possible.

Sutra III.43
बहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिर्महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशावरणक्षयः॥४३॥ 
bahir-akalpitā vr̥ttiḥ mahā-videhā tataḥ prakāśa-āvaraṇa-kṣayaḥ ॥43॥
[HA]: When The Unimagined Conception Can Be Held Outside, i.e. Unconnected With The Body, It Is Called Mahavideha Or The Great Discarnate. By Samyam On That The Veil Over The Illumination (Of Buddhisattva) Is Removed.
Sutra III.44
स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमाद भूतजयः॥४४॥ 
sthūla-svarūpa-sūkṣma-anvaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt bhūtajayaḥ ॥44॥
[HA]: (By Practicing Samyama) On The Grossness, The Essential Character, The Subtlety, The Inherence And The Objectiveness Which Are The Five Forms Of The Bhutas Or Elements, Mastery Over Bhutas Is Obtained.
[SV]: By making Samyama on the elements, beginning with the gross, and ending with the superfine, comes mastery of the elements.


Sutra III.45
ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसंपत्तद्धर्मानभिघातश्च॥४५॥ 
tato-‘ṇimādi-prādurbhāvaḥ kāyasaṁpat tad-dharānabhighātśca ॥45॥
[IT]: Thence, the attainment of the Animan etc., perfection of the body and the non-obstruction of its functions (of the body) by the powers (of the elements).
Sutra III.46
रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसंपत्॥४६॥ 
rūpa-lāvaṇya-bala-vajra-saṁhananatvāni kāyasaṁpat ॥46॥
[VH]: Beauty, gracefulness, strength, and adamantine firmness is the perfection of the body.
Sutra III.47
ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमादिन्द्रियजयः॥४७॥ 
grahaṇa-svarūpa-asmitā-avaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt-indriya jayaḥ ॥47॥
[HA]: By Samyama On The Receptivity, Essential Character, I-sense, Inherant Quality And Objectiveness Of The Five Organs, Mastery Over Them Can Be Acquired.
[SV]: By making Samyama on the objectivity, knowledge and egoism of the organs, by gradation comes the conquest of the organs.

Sutra III.48
ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च॥४८॥ 
tato mano-javitvaṁ vikaraṇa-bhāvaḥ pradhāna-jayaś-ca ॥48॥
[HA]: Thence Come Powers Of Rapid Movement As Of The Mind, Action Of Organs Independent Of The Body And Mastery Over Pradhana, The Primordial Cause.
[VH]: From that, the swiftness of the mind, the state of transcending the sense organs, and mastery over pradhana-the primary matrix of matter (prakrti).
Sutra III.49
सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च॥४९॥ 
sattva-puruṣa-anyatā-khyātimātrasya sarva-bhāvā-adhiṣṭhātr̥tvaṁ sarva-jñātr̥tvaṁ ca ॥49॥
[IT]: Only from awareness of the distinction between Sattva and Parusa arise supremacy over all states and forms of existence (omnipotence) and knowledge of everything (omniscience).
existence [omnipotence] is gained as is omniscience.
Sutra III.50
तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम्॥५०॥ 
tad-vairāgyād-api doṣa-bīja-kṣaye kaivalyam ॥50॥
[IT]: By non-attachment even to that, on the very seed of bondage being destroyed, follows Kaivalya
By non-attachment even to that [all these siddhis]. The seed of bondage is destroyed and thus follows Kailvalya (Independence).
Sutra III.51
स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात्॥५१॥ 
sthāny-upa-nimantraṇe saṅga-smaya-akaraṇaṁ punar-aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt ॥51॥
[HA]: When Invited By The Celestial Beings That Invitation Should Not Be Accepted Nor Should It Cause Vanity Because It Involves Possibility Of Undesirable Consequences. 

Sutra III.52
क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमाद्विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५२॥ 
kṣaṇa-tat-kramayoḥ saṁyamāt vivekajaṁ-jñānam ॥52॥
[HA]: Differentiating Knowledge Of The Self And The Non-Self Comes From Practicing Samyama On Moment and It Sequence.
[SP]: By making samyama on single moments and on their sequence in time, one gains discriminative knowledge.
Sutra III.53
जातिलक्षणदेशैरन्यतानवच्छेदात् तुल्ययोस्ततः प्रतिपत्तिः॥५३॥ 
jāti-lakṣaṇa-deśaiḥ anyatā-anavacchedāt tulyayoḥ tataḥ pratipattiḥ ॥53॥
[IT]: (54):
From it (Vivekajam’Jnanam) knowledge of distinction between similars which cannot be distinguished by class, characteristic or postion.
Sutra III.54
तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमं चेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५४॥ 
tārakaṁ sarva-viṣayaṁ sarvathā-viṣayam-akramaṁ-ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam ॥54॥
[IT]: The highest knowledge born of awareness of Reality is transcendent, includes the cognition of all objects simultaneously, pertains to all objects and processes whatsoever in the past, present and future and also transcends World Process.
Sutra III.55
सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यमिति॥५५॥ 

sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyam ॥55॥
[SV]:By the similarity of purity between the Sattva and the Purusa comes Kaivalya.

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This is the set of Sutras for the fourth chapter - on kaivalya

जन्मौषधिमन्त्रतपःसमाधिजाःसिद्धयः॥१॥ 
janma-oṣadhi-mantra-tapas-samādhi-jāḥ siddhayaḥ ॥1॥
[VH][BM][SS]: Siddhis are born of practices performed in previous births, or by herbs, mantra repetition, asceticism, or by samadhi.

Sutra IV.2
जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात्॥२॥ 
jāty-antara-pariṇāmaḥ prakr̥ty-āpūrāt ॥2॥
[HA]: Takes Place Through The Filling In Of Their Innate Nature.

Sutra IV.3
निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनां वरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत्॥३॥ 
nimittam-aprayojakaṁ prakr̥tīnāṁ-varaṇa-bhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat ॥3॥
[HA]: Causes Do Not Put Nature Into Motion, Only The Removal Of Obstacles Takes Place Through Them. This Is Like A Farmer Breaking Down the Barrier To Let The Water Flow (The Hindrances Being Removed By The Causes, The Nature Impenetrates By Itself)
Sutra IV.4
निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात्॥४॥ 
nirmāṇa-cittāny-asmitā-mātrāt ॥4॥
[HA]: All Creative Minds Are Constructed From Pure I-sense.

Sutra IV.5
प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम्॥५॥ 
pravr̥tti-bhede prayojakaṁ cittam-ekam-anekeṣām ॥5॥
[HA]: One (Principal) Mind Directs The Many Created Minds In The Variety Of Their Activities.

Sutra IV.6
तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम्॥६॥ 
tatra dhyānajam-anāśayam ॥6॥
[IT]: Of these, the mind born of meditation is free from impressions.

Sutra IV.7
कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनस्त्रिविधमितरेषाम्॥७॥ 
karma-aśukla-akr̥ṣṇaṁ yoginaḥ trividham-itareṣām ॥7॥
[HA]: The Actions Of Yogins Are Neither White Nor Black, Whereas The Actions Of Others Are Of Three Kinds.

Sutra IV.8
ततस्तद्विपाकानुगुणानामेवाभिव्यक्तिर्वासनानाम्॥८॥ 
tataḥ tad-vipāka-anugṇānām-eva-abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām ॥8॥
[IT]: From these only those tendencies are manifested for which the conditions are favourable.

Sutra IV.9
जातिदेशकालव्यवहितानामप्यानन्तर्यं स्मृतिसंस्कारयोरेकरूपत्वात्॥९॥ 
jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām-apy-āntaryāṁ smr̥ti-saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt ॥9॥
Therre is a relation of cause and effect even though separated bu class, locality and time because memory and impressions are the same in form.

Sutra IV.10
तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात्॥१०॥ 
tāsām-anāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt ॥10॥
[IT]: And there is no beginning of them, the desire to live being eternal.
Sutra IV.11
हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैः संगृहीतत्वादेषामभावे तदभावः॥११॥ 
hetu-phala-āśraya-ālambanaiḥ-saṁgr̥hītatvāt-eṣām-abhāve-tad-abhāvaḥ ॥11॥
[IT]: Being bound together as cause-effect, substratum-object, they (effects, i.e. Vasanas) disappear on their (cause, i.e. Avidya) disappearance

Sutra IV.12
अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम्॥१२॥ 
atīta-anāgataṁ svarūpato-‘sti-adhvabhedād dharmāṇām ॥12॥
[SV]: The past and future exist in their own nature, qualities having different ways.

Sutra IV.13
ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्मा गुणात्मानः॥१३॥ 
te vyakta-sūkṣmāḥ guṇa-atmānaḥ ॥13॥
[HA]: Characteristics, Which Are Present At All Times, Are Manifest And Subtle, And Are Composed Of The Three Gunas.

Sutra IV.14
परिणामैकत्वाद्व्स्तुतत्त्वम्॥१४॥ 
pariṇāma-ikatvāt vastu-tattvam ॥14॥
[SP]: Since the gunas work together within every change of form and expression, there is a unity in all things.

Sutra IV.15
वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः॥१५॥ 
vastusāmye citta-bhedāt-tayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ ॥15॥
[SP]: The same object is perceived in different ways by different minds. Therefore the mind must be other than the object.

Sutra IV.16
न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात्॥१६॥ 
na caika-citta-tantraṁ cedvastu tad-apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt ॥16॥
[SP]: [15A] The object cannot be said to be dependent on the perception of a single mind. For, if this were the case, the object could be said to be non-existent when that single mind was not perceiving it.
Sutra IV.17
तदुपरागापेक्षत्वाच्चित्तस्य वस्तु ज्ञाताज्ञातम्॥१७॥ 
tad-uparāga-apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu-jñātājñātaṁ ॥17॥
[SP]: [16] An object is known or unknown, depending upon the moods of the mind.

Sutra IV.18
सदा ज्ञाताश्चित्तवृत्तयस्तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात्॥१८॥ 
sadājñātāḥ citta-vrttayaḥ tat-prabhoḥ puruṣasya-apariṇāmitvāt ॥18॥
[SV]: [VN 4.17] The states of the mind are always known because the lord of the mind is unchangeable.

Sutra IV.19
न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात्॥१९॥ 
na tat-svābhāsaṁ dr̥śyatvāt ॥19॥
[SP]: [18] The mind is not self-luminous, since it is an object of perception.

Sutra IV.20
एकसमये चोभयानवधारणम्॥२०॥ 
eka samaye c-obhaya-an-avadhāraṇam ॥20॥
[HA]: Besides, Both (The Mind And Its Objects) Cannot Be Cognised Simultaneously.
Sutra IV.21
चित्तान्तरदृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेरतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसंकरश्च॥२१॥ 
cittāntara dr̥śye buddhi-buddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smr̥ti-saṁkaraś-ca ॥21॥
[HA]: If The Mind Were To Be Illumined By Another Mind Then There Will Be Repetition Ad Infinitum Of Illumining Minds And Intermixture Of Memory.

Sutra IV.22
चितेरप्रतिसंक्रमायास्तदाकारापत्तौ स्वबुद्धिसंवेदनम्॥२२॥ 
citer-aprati-saṁkramāyāḥ tad-ākāra-āpattau svabuddhi saṁ-vedanam ॥22॥
[SV]: [VN 4.21] The essence of knowledge (the Purusa) being un-changeable, when the mind takes its form, it becomes conscious.

Sutra IV.23
द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम्॥२३॥ 
draṣṭr̥-dr̥śy-opa-raktaṁ cittaṁ sarva-artham ॥23॥
[SP]: [22] The mind is able to perceive because it reflects both the Atman and the objects of perception.

Sutra IV.24
तदसंख्येयवासनाभिश्र्चित्रमपि परार्थं संहत्यकारित्वात्॥२४॥ 
tad-asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram-api parārtham saṁhatya-kāritvāt ॥24॥
[IT]: Through variegated by innumerable Vasanas it (the mind) acts for another (Purusa) for it acts in association.

Sutra IV.25
विशेषदर्शिन आत्मभावभावनाविनिवृत्तिः॥२५॥ 
viśeṣa-darśinaḥ ātmabhāva-bhāvanā-nivr̥ttiḥ ॥25॥
[VH][BM][SS]: To one who sees the distinction between the mind and the Atman, thoughts of mind as the Atman cease forever.

Sutra IV.26
तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम्॥२६॥ 
tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ॥26॥
[IT]: Then, verily, the mind is inclined towards discrimination and gravitating towards Kaivalya.

Sutra IV.27
तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः॥२७॥ 
tac-chidreṣu pratyaya-antarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ ॥27॥
[HA]: Through Its Breaches (i.e. Breaks In Discriminative Knowledge) Arise Other Fluctuations Of The Mind Due To (Residual) Latent Impressions.
Sutra IV.28
हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम्॥२८॥ 
hānam-eṣāṁ kleśavad-uktam ॥28॥
[HA]: It Has Been Said That Their Removal (i.e. Of Fluctuations) Follows The Same Process As The Removal Of Afflictions.

Sutra IV.29
प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेर्धर्ममेघः समाधिः॥२९॥ 
prasaṁkhyāne-‘py-akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharma-meghas-samādhiḥ ॥29॥
[HA]: When One Becomes Disintereested Even In Omniscience One Attains Perpetual Discriminative Enlightenment From Which Ensues The Concentration Known As Dharmamegha (Virtue-Pouring Cloud).

Sutra IV.30
ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः॥३०॥ 
tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivr̥ttiḥ ॥30॥
[IT]: Then follows freedom from Klesas and Karmas.

Sutra IV.31
तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्याज्ज्ञेयमल्पम्॥३१॥ 
tadā sarva-āvaraṇa-malāpetasya jñānasya-ānantyāt jñeyamalpam ॥31॥
[SP]: [30] Then the whole universe, with all its objects of sense-knowledge, becomes as nothing in comparison to that infinite knowledge which is free from all obstructions and impurities.

Sutra IV.32
ततः कृतार्थानां परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम्॥३२॥ 
tataḥ kr̥tārthānaṁ pariṇāma-krama-samāptir-guṇānām ॥32॥
[SP]: [31] Then the sequence of mutations of the gunas comes to an end, for they have fulfilled their purpose.
Sutra IV.33
क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्तनिग्रार्ह्यः क्रमः॥३३॥ 
kṣaṇa-pratiyogī pariṇāma-aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ ॥33॥
[VH][BM][SS]: The sequence [referred to above] means an uninterrupted succession of moments which can be recognized at the end of their transformations.

Sutra IV.34
पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति॥३४॥ 
puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ॥34॥
[SP]: [33] Since the gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is liberation. The Atman shines forth in its own pristine nature, as pure consciousness.